The Gulf in a Wider Context: Outside Nation-States in the Intensifying Iranian-Arab Security Competition



Russell contends that Iran’s relations with its Arab neighbors do not take place in a hermetically sealed regional environment. Rather, both Iran and the Arab states balance one another by leveraging relationships with nation-states from outside the Gulf. He addresses the role of foreign powers in shaping Iran-Arab relations. The chapter traces the evolution of American policy in the Gulf, Europe’s dwindling security influence, Russia’s reinvigorated security involvement, and China’s rising profile in the region.

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